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Foucault: Discourse Analysis of Modern Knowledge Understanding
Michel Foucault, who is involved in the poststructuralist thought that expresses a radical break from the old philosophical traditions in the Continental European tradition of the 20th century, rejects the thought of a self or a basic self which has a rational structure. Not only does it reject the subject which has a rational structure, but it also rejects any pattern that is imposed by “normal” ideas and absolute social structures. While doing so, he uses an archaeological method which aims to show intellectual structures or historical a priori. Foucault, especially in the early 1960s, develops an information archeology that evaluates discourse formations. In this way, he analyzes information systems within the framework of an anti-humanist approach. He believes that it is essential for love to have historical restrictive assumptions in order to explain the establishment of information, discourses, and object areas without referring to a transcendent subject. By interacting different dimensions in different areas, he tries to obtain the general emergence of the discourse of knowing. For this purpose, in this article, as Foucault attempts to make an analysis as an archaeologist, the knowledge, the basic where knowledge is made possible, the historical a priorical structuring of the thought, through which elements the knowledge is established, the understanding of knowledge characterizing the thought of a period have been examined.

Archeology, Knowledge, Archeology of Knowledge, Historical A priori.

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