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Abstract


Establishment and Education of Modern Zoos and Botanical Gardens in 19th Century İstanbul
The modern advances happening in botanic and zoology science in Europe affected Ottoman Empire, too, soon. The Renaissance, The Reform Movements, Enlightenment Age and Industrial Revolution provided Europe to branch out abroad and arouse curiosity against botanic and zoology sciences in the world just as all the other areas. The European botanic and zoology researchers who had wanted to satisfy their curiosity, spread all around the world and then exhibited the animal and plant species which they collected when they returned their countries. Thus, zoos and botanic gardens which contain in large numbers and quite various species of plants and animals were established in Europe in 19th century. Besides, the zoology and botanic departments were introduced in modern schools In Europe. Ottoman Empire didn’t stay indifferent to these developments in botanic and zoology areas happening in Europe and concentrated on modern botanic and zoology science since the middle of 19th century. Accordingly, they introduced botanic and zoology departments in some military and sultani high schools and started to instruct some lessons about botanic and zoology. Likewise, they attempted to institute a botanic garden and zoo in Nişantaşı; they instituted a zoo and a botanic garden in Yıldız Palace; and a botanic garden in Topkapı Palace and Haydar Paşa Medical Collage. They sent representors to botanic and zoology conferences in Europe, and imported animal and plant vaccines from Europe. In this study, the developments which happened in botanic and zoology area and Nişantaşı and Yıldız Zoos and other botanic gardens in İstanbul are discussed under the light of the documents provided from Ottoman Archives. Alongside this, the zoology and botanic lessons which thought in Medical Collage and their tutors mentioned.

Keywords
Botanic Garden, Zoo, İstanbul, Ottoman Empire, Medical Collage.



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