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Abstract


Russian’s 1864 Circassians Massacre and Migration of the Circassians to Anatolia
Russia has begun to implement an intensive Slavification policy since the 19th century as a result of Russia’s policy of getting the hot seas and of spreading through the Balkans starting with Tsar Peter the Great. As a natural consequence of this policy, the Russian State, putting a dense pressure on peoples living in the Caucasus, has forced people of the region to change their religion, and forced the resisting tribes to migrate by oppression and persecution. After the Ottoman-Russian war of 1853, Russia's pressure on the Caucasus gradually increased its violence. Even if the tribes led by Shaykh Shamil tried to withstand for a long time, the people of the region, whose resistance had broken after Sheikh Shamil's death, began to emigrate to Anatolia in crowds, in order to get rid of the Russian attacks that turned into genocide especially after 1864. This study was prepared in the light of the reports of the British Consuls in the regions such as Trabzon, Sohumkale, Istanbul and Odessa who witnessed the Russian oppression in examined period and sent them to the British Foreign Office by reporting them.

Keywords
Circassian, Russian, Caucasus, English, Consul, Ottoman, Anatolia



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